Originally published as 18 Am. For educational use only.
The "dark triad" of three personality traits: Sometimes called "dark personality.
Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity.
Psychopaths do not have the fear response experienced by most of us to the potential negative consequences of criminal or risky behavior and are relatively insensitive to punishment. They tend not to be deterred from their self-serving behaviors by criminal or social penalties.
In conjunction with their unfeeling and incessant drive to take care of themselves, psychopaths are predators, and anyone who can feed their need at the moment is potential prey. Psychopaths are at increased risk of engaging in both reactive and instrumental aggression.
Instrumental aggression sometimes called proactive or predatory aggression is planned, controlled, and purposeful, and is used for a particular aim—for example, to get drugs or sex, or just to establish dominance.
The primary goal is not necessarily to injure others but simply to obtain the desired outcome. This isn't aggression that arises from an emotional reaction; it's the calculated use of aggression as a tool.
Reactive aggression, on the other hand, is much more impulsive and emotion driven and arises from a perceived threat or attack or uncontrolled anger. The two types of aggression, instrumental and reactive, are not mutually exclusive. People can and do engage in both. The mob hit man may commit murder as part of his job but, like others, can experience road rage after a bad day at work.
The point is that the reliance on instrumental aggression to get what they want is one of me unsettling things that distinguishes some psychopaths from the general population. Worse, psychopaths are often superficially charming and glib; they are frequently able to take advantage of others because they know that acting genuinely friendly and helpful can be a useful strategy for getting what they want.
While violence may be an option, a psychopath is just as willing to use a well-timed compliment, a subtle misstatement of the truth, or an exaggerated apology to achieve his or her self-serving goals. To a psychopath, a punch in the face and a lie hidden behind a friendly smile are merely separate tools to be employed as dictated by circumstances.
Psychopathy Is Not Synonymous with Criminality: Of course, given their proclivity for ignoring social norms and laws, quite a few psychopaths find their way into the criminal justice system, some spending significant portions of their lives incarcerated. Nevertheless, not all psychopaths are violent or serious criminals.
In fact, most psychopaths manage to avoid involvement with the criminal justice system. Either their transgressions of social norms, while destructive and painful to those involved, do not rise to the level of criminal activity, or they are never apprehended by the police for the crimes they do commit.
While true psychopaths share certain behavioral and emotional attributes, they are not all identical, and they exhibit these various characteristics to a greater or lesser degree.
Some psychopaths can control their self-serving behaviors so they remain perhaps just barely within the bounds of legal behavior, not because to do otherwise would be "wrong," but because being caught would unduly interfere with their efforts to get what they want. In some circumstances, psychopathic traits may actually help an individual become a well-regarded although not necessarily well-liked member of society.
A superficially charming and engaging personality combined with a ruthless willingness to "do whatever it takes to get the job done" can be extremely useful in a high-stakes, pressure-filled environment Schouten and Silver,p.
The criteria of APD is easy to measure, resulting in an over inclusive, highly reliable diagnosis but with questionable validity, especially when considering the personality features associated with psychopathy.
Ongoing Controversies — The addition of criminal criteria to Hare's tests has contributed to the view of psychopaths as a type of criminal versus the view that psychopathy is a type of abnormal personality. Others have suggested results of therapy are essentially unknown based upon today's data.
For example, there is a strong tendency to sensationalism or exaggeration: Aggressive narcissism, Factor 2: Socially deviant lifestyle] - three factor solution [Interpersonal, Affective, Behavioral] - four factor solution [Interpersonal, Affective, Behavioral, and Antisocial] - or other?The city of Detroit, in the U.S.
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These issues can all be used as evidence to prove that crime is a result of social construction. A second reason as to why crime can be viewed as a social construction is that crime is not the same everywhere.
Review of Psychopathy. William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction. and before. Table of contents. 1). Synopsis of Psychopathy. Published: Mon, 5 Dec Crime is a term that refers to many types of misconduct that is forbidden by law.
There are a number of different reasons as to why crime can be viewed as a social construction. The Spiders Part II: The Diamond Ship The Spiders Part II: The Diamond Ship () is a much less successful film than Part I. Its storytelling is flat, and it is full of Chinatown melodrama and racistly stereotyped villains.
In essence crime can be considered a social concept; a specific word attributes an individual to a particularly undesirable group.
individuals surrender particular rights to state in exchange for its protection thus forming a social contract. Because we are all viewed as having equal opportunity to reason, the classical view holds that any.