Models of migration to the New World Polynesian expansion Humans reached Australia by at least 40, BC which implies some degree of water crossing. People were in the Americas before 10, BC. One theory holds that they travelled along the coast by canoe. Polynesians[ edit ] About BC speakers of the Austronesian languagesprobably on the island of Taiwan, mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves, or their languages, south to the Philippines and Indonesia and east to the islands of Micronesia and Melanesia.
Baroque painting in Central and South America is basically an extension of that of Spain and Portugal, and even the best rarely rises to the general standard of the European schools. Important paintings and sculptures tended to be imported from Europe,… Pre-Columbian Central America Central Americaan archaeological bridge connecting North and South Americawas, before the arrival of the Europeans, home to various nomadic and sedentary cultures.
Although the Maya were the most advanced pre-Columbian civilization in the hemisphere, they were never unified. Unlike the Aztec and Inca empires, their autonomous city-states remained independent, presaging the political fragmentation that would characterize Central America to the present day.
What unity existed was cultural rather than political.
There is scant evidence of human life in Central America before bce. Primitive human habitation in the region before that date is likely, perhaps as early as 40, bce, but civilized society did not emerge until the 2nd millennium bce. Between and bce, people of the region made the transition from hunting and foraging to plant cultivation.
Pottery in the Parita Bay region of Panama, dating from about bce, reflected South American cultural influence, which eventually reached as far north as Guatemala and Chiapas.
Mexican influence in Chiapas dates from at least bce, and thereafter it extended as far south as Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Central America thus became a meeting ground for MesoamericanSouth American, and Caribbean peoples.
After bce, organized sedentary farming communities became numerous, and active commerce and communications developed among them. Although cassava manioc and other tubers were important to Indians of the Caribbean coast, corn maize was the primary staple food of most Central Americans, accompanied by a wide variety of beans, squash, and other vegetables and fruits.
The Olmec culture and other Mexican influences substantially affected the development of Mayan civilization, while central Mexican Nahuatl influence challenged the Maya and stretched along the Pacific coast, notable especially among the Pipil of El Salvador and the Chorotega and Nicarao of Nicaragua.
Fugitives from the European conquistadores in the Caribbean increased this influence considerably at the close of the 15th century. The MiskitoSumoRama, and other tribes on the Nicaraguan and Honduran Caribbean shores have survived to the present.
Emergence of the Maya After bce an advanced Mayan civilization emerged in the highlands of Guatemala and El Salvador. Although the highlands remained heavily populated, these lowland cities became the centres for a higher civilization.
Overcrowding, famine, climatic changeor major geologic catastrophes may have contributed to migration, but contact between the highland and lowland peoples continued as merchants carried cultural, economic, and social traits from one place to another.
Mayan temple at Tikal in present-day Guatemala. But the Maya developed the highest culture of pre-Columbian America, which reached its height between and ce. Maya priests made discoveries in astronomy and mathematics comparable to similar advancements in ancient Egypt.
They developed an advanced system of writing, and their hieroglyphs on stone monuments stelaeerected throughout the Maya lands, recorded their history.
Brilliant Mayan artistic and scientific achievements in ceramics, sculpture, weaving, and painting, some of which were more advanced than European accomplishments of the same era, all showed remarkable artistic sensitivity.
They developed an accurate calendar and complex systems of agricultural and water management. The Maya could not match their European counterparts in technology, however. Their architectural works were also less impressive than those of ancient and medieval European civilizations.Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈθisko ˈβaθkeθ ðe koɾoˈnaðo]; – 22 September ) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between and Vázquez de Coronado had hoped to reach the Cities of Cíbola, often referred to now.
The first written records relating to the Christianization of Spain date from the 5th century and the Roman Catholic religion was established in the country. Coronado Heights was built Coronado Heights was a hill in Kansas near a site where artifacts were found. The people believed the artifacts came from Coronado's expedition.
The Coronado National Memorial The Coronado National Memorial is a national park in the American Southwest. It was named in honor of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado.
Francisco de Vasquez Coronado By , Coronado joined Mendoza as an investor in a major expedition, which he himself would lead, of some Spaniards and more than 1, Indians, along with many horses, pigs, ships and cattle.
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado was a Spanish conquistador who became one of the first Europeans to discover the Grand Canyon and sight many other important landmarks.
As an explorer he led extensive expeditions to faraway lands primarily in the hope of finding the mythical Seven Cities of plombier-nemours.com Of Birth: Salamanca. Polynesians reached nearly all the Pacific islands by about AD, followed by Asian navigation in Southeast Asia and West Pacific.
Around the Middle Ages Muslim traders linked the Middle East and East Africa to the Asian Pacific coasts (to southern China and much of the Malay Archipelago).