Individual national and expansion histories referred to each other in varying degrees at different times but often also reinforced each other. Transfer processes within Europe and in the colonies show that not only genuine colonial powers such as Spain and England, but also "latecomers" such as Germany participated in the historical process of colonial expansion with which Europe decisively shaped world history. In turn, this process also clearly shaped Europe itself. Introduction In world history, no continent has possessed so many different forms of colonies and none has so incomparably defined access to the world by means of a civilising mission as a secular programme as did modern Europe.
Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships again.
This effort was rebuffed and later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth I gave her blessing to further privateering raids against Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that was returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World.
By this time, Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas and was exploring the Pacific Ocean, Portugal had established trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River area, later to become New France.
English overseas possessions InElizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration. Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleighwho was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in Later that year, Raleigh founded the Roanoke Colony on the coast of present-day North Carolinabut lack of supplies caused the colony to fail.
Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations' colonial infrastructures to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies. This period, until the loss of the Thirteen Colonies after the American War of Independence towards the end of the 18th century, has subsequently been referred to by some historians as the "First British Empire".
British colonisation of the AmericasBritish AmericaThirteen Coloniesand Atlantic slave trade The Caribbean initially provided England's most important and lucrative colonies,  but not before several attempts at colonisation failed.
An attempt to establish a colony in Guiana in lasted only two years, and failed in its main objective to find gold deposits.
This led to hostilities with the United Dutch Provinces —a series of Anglo-Dutch Wars —which would eventually strengthen England's position in the Americas at the expense of the Dutch. Bermuda was settled and claimed by England as a result of the shipwreck of the Virginia Company's flagshipand in was turned over to the newly formed Somers Isles Company.
The Province of Carolina was founded in The American colonies were less financially successful than those of the Caribbean, but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of English emigrants who preferred their temperate climates.
Forts and trading posts established by the HBC were frequently the subject of attacks by the French, who had established their own fur trading colony in adjacent New France.
Until the abolition of its slave trade inBritain was responsible for the transportation of 3. For the transported, harsh and unhygienic conditions on the slaving ships and poor diets meant that the average mortality rate during the Middle Passage was one in seven.
Besieged by neighbouring Spanish colonists of New Granadaand afflicted by malariathe colony was abandoned two years later. The Darien scheme was a financial disaster for Scotland—a quarter of Scottish capital  was lost in the enterprise—and ended Scottish hopes of establishing its own overseas empire.
The episode also had major political consequences, persuading the governments of both England and Scotland of the merits of a union of countries, rather than just crowns.
Rivalry with the Netherlands in Asia Fort St. George was founded at Madras in At the end of the 16th century, England and the Netherlands began to challenge Portugal's monopoly of trade with Asia, forming private joint-stock companies to finance the voyages—the English, later British, East India Company and the Dutch East India Companychartered in and respectively.
The primary aim of these companies was to tap into the lucrative spice tradean effort focused mainly on two regions; the East Indies archipelagoand an important hub in the trade network, India. There, they competed for trade supremacy with Portugal and with each other.
Hostilities ceased after the Glorious Revolution of when the Dutch William of Orange ascended the English throne, bringing peace between the Netherlands and England.
A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the East Indies archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and byin terms of sales, the British company had overtaken the Dutch.
At the concluding Treaty of UtrechtPhilip renounced his and his descendants' right to the French throne and Spain lost its empire in Europe. Gibraltar became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean. Spain also ceded the rights to the lucrative asiento permission to sell slaves in Spanish America to Britain.
The signing of the Treaty of Paris had important consequences for the future of the British Empire. In North America, France's future as a colonial power effectively ended with the recognition of British claims to Rupert's Land and the ceding of New France to Britain leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control and Louisiana to Spain.
Spain ceded Florida to Britain.Revolution and the growth of industrial society, – Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events. The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades.
World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th century. Revolution and the growth of industrial society, – Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events.
The French Revolution broke out in , and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. World War I began in Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during .
British Empire: British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies—colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. Learn more about the British Empire in this article.
Feb 17, · East India Company. British involvement in India during the 18th century can be divided into two phases, one ending and the other beginning at mid-century. One example of this nineteenth century colonialism is Britain's colonization of India.
Reasons for Colonialism. the Industrial Revolution was beginning in such places as Great Britain, and new markets and raw materials were needed to uphold the new industries.
A Battle during the Sepoy Rebellion. COLONIALISM, IMPERIALISM AND SOCIAL DARWINISM Colonialism and imperialism were practiced by the countries of Europe from the 15th to the 20th century and by America during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Wikipedia defines Colonialism as, “the building and maintaining of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. .