A Literary Lexicon The following is a list of technical terms commonly used in the critical study of art and literature. The list is short, and the definitions are purposely brief. Students seeking a more complete listing--or a more detailed and comprehensive set of definitions and examples--should consult a good literary dictionary or encyclopedia e.
Historical background From Classical times to In the long perspective of human evolutionary development, dictionaries have been known through only a slight fraction of language history.
People at first simply talked without having any authoritative backing from reference books. A short Akkadian word list, from central Mesopotamia, has survived from the 7th century bce.
The Western tradition of dictionary making began among the Greeks, although not until the language had changed so much that explanations and commentaries were needed. After a 1st-century-ce lexicon by Pamphilus of Alexandria, many lexicons were compiled in Greek, the most important being those of the Atticists in the 2nd century, that of Hesychius of Alexandria in the 5th century, and that of Photius and the Suda in the Middle Ages.
The Atticists were compilers of lists of words and phrases thought to be in accord with the usage of the Athenians. Because Latin was a much-used language of great prestige well into modern times, its monumental dictionaries were important and later influenced English lexicography.
In the 1st century bce, Marcus Terentius Varro wrote the treatise De lingua Latina ; the extant books of its section of etymology are valuable for their citations from Latin poets. A Lancashire will of contained the provision: The corporation records of Boston, Lincolnshire, have the following entry for the year That a dictionary shall be bought for the scholars of the Free School, and the same book to be tied in a chain, and set upon a desk in the school, whereunto any scholar may have access, as occasion shall serve.
The origin of the bilingual lists can be traced to a practice of the early Middle Ages, that of writing interlinear glosses—explanations of difficult words—in manuscripts. It is but a step for these glosses to be collected together at the back of a manuscript and then for the various lists—glossaries—to be assembled in another manuscript.
Some of these have survived from the 7th and 8th centuries—and in some cases they preserve the earliest recorded forms in English.
The first bilingual glossary to find its way into print was a French-English vocabulary for the use of travelers, printed in England by William Caxton without a title page, in The words and expressions appeared in parallel columns on 26 leaves.
Next came a Latin- English vocabulary by a noted grammarian, John Stanbridge, published by Richard Pynson in and reprinted frequently. Palsgrave was a tutor of French in London, and a letter has survived showing that he arranged with his printer that no copy should be sold without his permission, lest his profit by teaching the French tongue might be minished by the sale of the same to such persons as, besides him, were disposed to study the said tongue.
A Welsh-English dictionary by William Salesbury in brought another language into requisition: A Dictionary in English and Welsh. His wife…was irreconcilably angry with him for sitting-up late at night so, compiling his Dictionary….
When he had half-done it, she had the opportunity to get into his study, took all his pains out in her lap, and threw it into the fire, and burnt it.
Well, for all that, that good man had so great a zeal for the advancement of learning, that he began it again, and went through with it to that perfection that he hath left it to us, a most useful work.
In appeared the first edition by John Withals of A Short Dictionary for Young Beginners, which gained greater circulation to judge by the frequency of editions than any other book of its kind.
Many other lexicographers contributed to the development of dictionaries. The first rhyming dictionary, by Peter Levens, was produced in —Manipulus Vocabulorum.
The interlingual dictionaries had a far greater stock of English words than were to be found in the earliest all-English dictionaries, and the compilers of the English dictionaries, strangely enough, never took full advantage of these sources.
It may be surmised, however, that people in general sometimes consulted the interlingual dictionaries for the English vocabulary. The anonymous author of The Art of English Poesy, thought to be George Puttenhamwrote in concerning the adoption of southern speech as the standard: The mainstream of English lexicography is the word list explained in English.
The first known English-English glossary grew out of the desire of the supporters of the Reformation that even the most humble Englishman should be able to understand the Scriptures.
Albe, a longe garment of white lynen. Boothe, an housse made of bowes. Brestlappe or brestflappe, is soche a flappe as thou seist in the brest or a cope. Consecrate, to apoynte a thinge to holy uses. Dedicate, purifie or sanctifie.
Tabernacle, an house made tentwise, or as a pauelion. Spelling reformers long had a deep interest in producing English dictionaries. He had the collaboration of his son Thomas, a schoolmaster in London.Free business-day shipping within the U.S. when you order $25 of eligible items sold or fulfilled by Amazon.
FALL undergraduate courses-updated (click plombier-nemours.com) FALL graduate courses-updated (click plombier-nemours.com). The Classics program offers an undergraduate major and minor in both the B.A. and B.S. degrees. Students pursuing a major or minor in Classics study Latin and/or Ancient Greek, Ancient History, Mythology and Folklore, and Ancient .
literary lexicon study guide by MSkinner22 includes 49 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades.
The Kartvelian languages (Georgian: ქართველური ენები, Kartveluri enebi, also known as Iberian and formerly South Caucasian) are a language family indigenous to the Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia, with large groups of native speakers in Russia, Iran, the United States, the European Union, Israel, and northeastern parts of .
My idea of a great literary dinner party is Fran, eating alone, reading a book. — Dana Snitzky, Longreads, "This Month in Books: ‘What Used To Be Me Before the World Buried It’," 10 July Michiko Kakutani, literary critic Shakespeare’s collected plays.
Literary terms refer to the technique, style, and formatting used by writers and speakers to masterfully emphasize, embellish, or strengthen their compositions.