Major HBR cases concerns on a whole industry, a whole organization or some part of organization; profitable or non-profitable organizations. To make a detailed case analysis, student should follow these steps: Case study method guide is provided to students which determine the aspects of problem needed to be considered while analyzing a case study.
There are three main classes of manures used in soil management: Animal manure Cement reservoirs, one new, and one containing cow manure mixed with water.
This is common in rural Hainan Province, China. Most animal manure consists of feces. Common forms of animal manure include farmyard manure FYM or farm slurry liquid manure.
FYM also contains plant material often strawwhich has been used as bedding for animals and has absorbed the feces and urine. Agricultural manure in liquid form, known as slurryis produced by more intensive livestock rearing systems where concrete or slats are used, instead of straw bedding.
Manure from different animals has different qualities and requires different application rates when used as fertilizer. For example horsescattlepigssheepchickensturkeysrabbitsand guano from seabirds and bats all have different properties.
Horses mainly eat grass and a few weeds so horse manure can contain grass and weed seeds, as horses do not digest seeds the way that cattle do. Cattle manure is a good source of nitrogen as well as organic carbon.
Livestock feed can be mixed with the manure due to spillage. For example, chickens are often fed meat and bone mealan animal product, which can end up becoming mixed with chicken litter.
Human manure Some people refer to human excreta as human manure, and the word " humanure " has also been used. Just like animal manure, it can be applied as a soil conditioner reuse of excreta in agriculture.
Sewage sludge is a material that contains human excreta, as it is generated after mixing excreta with water and treatment of the wastewater in a sewage treatment plant. Compost Compost containing turkey manure and wood chips from bedding material is dried and then applied to pastures for fertilizer.
Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials.
It is usually of plant origin, but often includes some animal dung or bedding. Green manure Green manures are crops grown for the express purpose of plowing them in, thus increasing fertility through the incorporation of nutrients and organic matter into the soil.
Leguminous plants such as clover are often used for this, as they fix nitrogen using Rhizobia bacteria in specialized nodes in the root structure.
Other types of plant matter used as manure include the contents of the rumens of slaughtered ruminantsspent grain left over from brewing beer and seaweed. Uses of manure Animal manure Manure on a wall. Animal manure, such as chicken manure and cow dunghas been used for centuries as a fertilizer for farming.
It can improve the soil structure aggregation so that the soil holds more nutrients and water, and therefore becomes more fertile. Animal manure also encourages soil microbial activity which promotes the soil's trace mineral supply, improving plant nutrition.
It also contains some nitrogen and other nutrients that assist the growth of plants. Manure from pigs and cattle is usually spread on fields using a manure spreader. Due to the relatively lower level of proteins in vegetable matter, herbivore manure has a milder smell than the dung of carnivores or omnivores.
However, herbivore slurry that has undergone anaerobic fermentation may develop more unpleasant odors, and this can be a problem in some agricultural regions.
Cow and Pig Manures While cows eat many of the same plants eaten by horses, weed seeds do not survive in a cow's digestive system. Cattle (along with goats, sheep, deer, and some other animals) are ruminants that have a system of two stomachs to double-digest their food. By Nikki Tilley (Author of The Bulb-o-licious Garden). The use of cattle manure, or cow dung, in the garden is a popular practice in many rural areas. This type of manure is not as rich in nitrogen as many other types; however, the high ammonia levels can burn plants when the fresh manure is directly applied. Effects of Chicken, Pig and Cow Manures on Growth and Yield of Kalmegh (Andrographis Paniculata Nees) Detpiratmongkol, S.*, Ubolkerd, T. and Yoosukyingstaporn, S. Plant Production Technology Section, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s.
Poultry droppings are harmful to plants when fresh, but after a period of composting are valuable fertilizers. Livestock antibiotics Ina University of Minnesota study  indicated that foods such as corn, lettuce, and potatoes have been found to accumulate antibiotics from soils spread with animal manure that contains these drugs.
Organic foods may be much more or much less likely to contain antibiotics, depending on their sources and treatment of manure.
For instance, by Soil Association Standard 4.
On the other hand, as found in the University of Minnesota study, the non-usage of artificial fertilizers, and resulting exclusive use of manure as fertilizer, by organic farmers can result in significantly greater accumulations of antibiotics in organic foods.Information About Composting Manures Composting with manure is not a new concept, though the various types of manures for composting may be, and there are many.
Composting manure piles is a great way to produce healthy soil, which produces healthy plants. However, these studies, which included a total of seven digestates, three pig slurries and two cow manures, produced inconclusive results.
With the digestate, a positive response on soil respiration was seen for all samples, but PAO was both positively and negatively affected (Abubaker et al., , Abubaker et al., , Odlare et al., ).
Pig manure, along with dog and cat manures, should never be used on vegetable gardens. These manures often carry parasites, such as roundworms, that survive the composting process.
Cow, sheep. Cow and Pig Manures While cows eat many of the same plants eaten by horses, weed seeds do not survive in a cow’s digestive system.
Cattle (along with goats, sheep, deer, and some other animals) are ruminants that have a system of two stomachs to double-digest their food. Farmer, Rebecca Hosking, takes a trip to a biodynamic farm in Cornwall to find out how they use Joel Salatin's method of composting with pigs, rather than diesel, to turn their cow manure into fertiliser.
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are utilised by bacteria, .