References and Further Reading 1. Behaviorists and Behaviorisms Behaviorism, notoriously, came in various sorts and has been, also notoriously, subject to variant sortings: Views commonly styled "behavioristic" share various of the following marks:
Mendel describes the requirements that experimental plants must meet in order for the experiments to succeed: Mendel then explains that he has selected Pisuma genus of Leguminosae that meets all of the experimental requirements. Furthermore, they can be dependably crossed artificially ; Mendel briefly describes the technique for doing such a cross, which involves removing the pollen-carrying stamens and then dusting the stigma with pollen from another flower.
Mendel reports that he obtained a number of varieties of Pisum and that all produced constant forms in a two-year trial. Like many plants, the flowers of the pea possess both male and female reproductive organs; therefore, if left to themselves, they will self-fertilize.
The specific advantage with Pisum is that, during this self-fertlization, the keel of the flower covers the reproductive organs, so there is no possibility of pollen coming from other flowers unless the keel is damaged or malformed.
Mendel writes that he selected 22 of the 34 varieties of peas he first obtained, and that most of these seemed to be of the species Pisum sativum what we call garden peas. This section of the paper ends with a short discussion of the question of how to distinguish species from varieties in plants, and Mendel concludes that the distinction seems in many cases arbitrary.
But he also writes that the distinction is not important for the purposes of his experiments. Mendel's attention to detail in this section is striking, and his choice of what to explain, and what to leave unexplained, is characteristic of his choices throughout the paper.
He tells us, for example, the exact number of varieties he procured from the seedsman, and exactly how to perform an artificial fertilization.
At the same time, he does not explain why he chose only 22 of the varieties with which to experiment.
We can only assume that these were the seeds that "worked". Questions concerning whether or not Mendel should be considered a "Darwinian" find their origin in this section, and particularly in Mendel's apparently Darwinian claim about the plastic boundaries between species and varieties.
One difficulty in answering such questions is that in Mendel's time, and for quite some time afterwards, the classification of species was a different matter for botanists than for animal biologists.
The definitions of species proposed by evolutionists frequently involved references to bisexual reproduction, and these were difficult to apply to plants like peas much less to organisms like moss. Thus, Mendel's implied comment, that two plants can be considered the same species if experts think they are, represents a view that necessarily dominated plant biology for a long time.
For an excellent historical review of how different generations have addressed the question of whether Mendel was a Darwinian, and whether Mendel's results were compatible with evolutionary theory, see Sapp .
Mendel thought about scientific knowledge more like a physicist than a natural historian, in that he wanted necessary and sufficient conditions in his definitions, and laws to describe the production of hybrids.
Often the style of a scientific paper is meant to convey the uncertainty and open-endedness of experimentation, even as it's clear that by the time the article is written, the experiments described in the article are over and the results are known. Mendel's paper tells the story of a series of experiments, and narrates them as if they are being carried out while the paper is being written; yet, we know that this really isn't and wasn't the case.
Similarly, Mendel first describes the requirements that his experimental plants must meet, and then reveals that he has found a species that meets exactly those requirements.
The narrative creation of suspense and the fabrication of experimental time, combined with a feigned ignorance of the experimental outcomes, is part of a rhetorical strategy common in experimental science papers.
Mendel states that the goal of the experiments is to observe how the characters of parental true-breeding plants combine, when they are crossed artificially to produce hybrids ; and how these characters are then transmitted to the offspring of those hybrids. He wants to find a law that describes and thus can be used to predict the forms of those offspring.
Mendel lists more than a dozen observable characters or traits of the pea, and then describes the seven he will follow in the experiments. Each of the characters exhibit two, and only two, forms, and each form is easily distinguishable from the other; for example, the distinction between the "long" stem 6 or 7 feet tall and the "short" stem approximately a foot tall is not a subtle one.
The experiments begin with Mendel's crossing plants exhibiting one of the forms of each character, with plants exhibiting the other form. This is carried out by artificial fertilization, meaning that pollen from one plant is brushed onto the stigma and thus eventually united with the eggs of the other.
In order to assess whether his results were biased by which plant was the pollen or egg donor, Mendel did "reciprocal crosses", using the same varieties sometimes as pollen donors and sometimes as egg donors called here "seed bearers".
Mendel reports choosing only the most "vigorous" of the plants for further experiments, and describes the use and importance of controlswhich were experiments he carried out in a greenhouse.
He concludes with a discussion of the minimal risk of false impregnation meaning a fertlization in which the pollen donor is not clearly known in Pisum.
First, the peas as seeds are planted in the Spring.BIO FINAL EXAM NOTES Chapter 51 – Animal Behavior Behavior o A behavior is the nervous system’s response to a stimulus and is carried out by the muscular or the hormonal system o Behavior helps an animal Obtain food Find a partner for sexual reproduction Maintain homeostasis o Behavior is subject to natural selection over time .
In the study of animal behavior, the definition of a display is: a signal used between two individuals in a particular context. In the study of animal behavior, the abbreviation “RHP” is .
Learn final exam notes campbell ap biology animal behavior with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of final exam notes campbell ap biology animal behavior flashcards on Quizlet. Amanda Durell September 26, Consumer Behavior Final Project Target Corporation is a retail store based out of America, its headquarters are in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Target’s goal began with creating an upscale alternative to Wal Mart, while remaining a discount store. Safety & Health. Product Safety Information including Recalls, Adverse Drug Events, Antimicrobial Resistance, Animal Cloning, and Animal Drug Shortage Information.
There are no lecture notes for the midterm review, Lecture 22 or Lectures Lecture note files. 1 Lecture 1 Notes: Introduction: class requirements, various approaches to animal behavior and its study (PDF) 2 Lecture 2 Notes: Introduction to ethology; three–spined stickleback fish (PDF) 3.